Energy: Energy is the main universal currency in the game. It is used for the production and upkeep of units, colony structures, unit modules and operations. Energy is generated by your colonies and no empire can go without it. Energy can be traded, and can be found as nodes and pickups on the map.
Cosmite: This rare material has an origin beyond the void and is required for advanced units and unit modules. Cosmite is mainly gained from map nodes (Craters!). The rarity of this material means that high tier units can’t be mass produced and Sectors containing Cosmite are highly contested.
Influence: Influence is the diplomatic currency used to manipulate other players and NPC factions, it can be used for things like asking NPCs to surrender locations, hire NPCs mercenaries, and to make diplomatic pronouncements. Influence is gained by performing Quests and from an inherent generation of your empire. Cooperative Doctrines and friendly play styles give bonusses on Influence generation.
Reputation: Your reputation determines how other Empires and NPC factions see you. Reputation modifies your Influence gain and Global Morale. Reputation is influenced by your in-game actions.
Knowledge: Knowledge is used to rediscover and apply the lost technologies of the Star Union. You might notice there are two Research like slots in the top bar of the latest screenshot, more on this later!
Tactical Operation Points: Tactical Operations Points are used to launch the Operations (Air strikes, Psi Storms, etc) you can call in during tactical combat, when a battle takes place within your Operational Coverage. The Tac Ops value resets every turn.
Strategic Ops: Used to launch Strategic Operations that are used on the world map. Strategic Operations include summons, sector (de-)buffs, and covert actions.
Doctrine Slots: Determines the amount of global doctrines (e.g. empire wide bonuses) you can have active at once.
Global Morale: Overall morale of your empire affecting Unit Morale and the Happiness of your colonists. It is influenced by the wars you enter and how justified they are perceived to be.